The story starts out by talking about an assignment that the speaker has to do for his class. He then goes on to describe himself and where he lives. He even goes in to detail about where exactly he lives which seems to be in a rural type area. Once he arrives to his home, he starts to think about what he is going to write about. He deliberates on what is true about him. For example, he questions what is an American??
With this question, he goes on to say that his teacher wants for his students to speak the truth about themselves, but he finds it hard to do because he would like to identify himself with his classmates or teachers, but sort of feels a restraint. He makes a list of things that he likes, but he then says that the "true American" also likes the same things, but they don't like to relate themselves with him or people like him.
I think that this story was trying to say that we all sometimes try to alienate each other , but that we are all somewhat alike in some points. Also, when Hughes says," You are white---/yet a part of me, as I am a part of you." , I get the feeling that he was trying to speak out and say that everyone is EQUAL! Maybe he was also saying that whether the typical American liked it or not, they were always going to have some type of tie with the "colored" race.